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Dental Crowns

What is a Dental Crown?

A crown is used to protect a tooth that has been weakened by cracks or decay. It is a strong cap over your tooth that restores the structure and strength of the original tooth.

Why Do Teeth Need Crowns?

The most common reason why you would need a crown or veneer is because your tooth is weakened, either from dental cavities or fractured. Crowns are also used in worn out or discolored teeth to achieve a more beautiful shape and to hide any discoloration.

These situations could be:

  • Teeth with Large Fillings or Cavities
  • Teeth with Cracks or Chipped
  • Teeth that had Root Canal Treatment
  • Teeth that have a odd shape or color different to the neighbouring teeth

Crowns can protect your teeth from further wear and cracks which may lead to extraction of the tooth.

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What is a Dental Bridge?

A Dental Bridge functions to cover a gap between two teeth. It is made of 2 crowns on the supporting teeth adjacent to the gap, and a prosthetic tooth suspended in the middle.

Patients who want to avoid surgery or who are unable to have dental implants usually opt for the dental bridge option as it is a permanent option that is long lasting and natural looking. A dental bridge can be done on the same day after tooth extraction or if you already have a gap between your teeth.

Experienced Dentists

Our dentists keep themselves up to date with international techniques that are effective and comfortable for you.

No Temporary Crowns

Temporary crown or bridge are usually rough and fall off easily. Instead, we make the final crown straightaway, minimizing your downtime.

100% Metal Free

All our crowns and bridges made in house are metal free, and do not contain mercury or other toxins.

Less Drilling, Less Sensitivity of teeth

Using modern ceramic materials allows us to conserve more tooth volume compared to traditional metal ceramic crowns or bridges

dental designs logo

Modern advances in dental technology has allowed us to be able to make a crown in the clinic, under our full control. Unlike traditional dental laboratories, which are made off-site, we make all our crowns and bridges in house to ensure full quality control.

Genuine Materials Used

Only high-quality, genuine materials with long track record of success are used for our CAD/CAM milling.

Personalised Treatment

Each crown or bridge is designed individually, hand stained, polished and finished and inspected to ensure quality before giving it to our patients.

Natural Aesthetics

Each crown and bridge is hand painted to create life-like aesthetics that match your teeth naturally

Fully Digital Workflow

3D Scanning of your teeth = No Dental Moulds for your crown or bridge.

Dental moulds are a part of traditional dentistry and are uncomfortable. We use digital scans instead which are fast, comfortable and more accurate.

Same Day, Emergency appointments available

CEREC CROWN  X  DENTAL DESIGNS CLINIC

What Happens During the Crown Visit?

1. The Crown Consultation

Welcome to our clinic! During your first appointment, we’ll do a detailed examination which includes tests to check:

  • Which tooth is causing your pain or issues;
  • The extent of the damage or decay on the tooth;
  • The status of the tooth nerve (if it is alive and healthy, infected, or dead);
  • The health of the gums that support the tooth

Based on this information, our dentists will take photos of your teeth and explain the treatments options available.  As crowns are usually irreversible, we need to make sure that consent is granted and that all alternative options have been considered.

Our philosophy is for both our dentist and you to have a detailed understanding of the situation so that you can make the right decision for yourself.

2. Tooth Preparation and 3D Scanning

Once we have decided on a crown, it is time to start! To allow the crown to fit well, we would need to remove a layer of tooth structure. This will ensure that the dental crown is strong enough while preserving the health of the tooth.

Once the preparation has been done, we use a 3D scanner (CEREC) to create a 3D model of your teeth,  instead of the usual dental molds which are messy and painful. 3D models are more accurate and allow us to start work on creating the crown immediately, resulting in a shorter visit for you.

3. Designing your custom crown

Using the CEREC CAD/CAM software, we create the shape of the new crown, taking into account the biting forces and how the crown fits with the neighbouring teeth. We want to ensure that it feels and looks like your natural tooth. It’s bespoke dentistry for your teeth!

4. 3D CAD/CAM Milling

The crown is designed and precisely milled with diamond drills in the CEREC MC-XL machine, ensuring a highly accurate fit of the crown with precision fit of 25 µm to the neighbouring teeth and optimum bite force.

The crown is milled from a single block of material which ensures that the crown consists of one single piece (monolithic). This reduces breakages and cracks from developing due to laminal stresses in the material.

4. 3D CAD/CAM Milling

The crown is designed and milled in the CEREC MC-XL machine from Dentsply Sirona, ensuring a highly accurate fit of the crown with precision fit of 25 µm to the neighbouring teeth and optimum bite force.

The crown is milled from a single block of material which ensures that the crown consists of one single layer (monolithic). This reduces breakages and cracks from developing due to laminal stresses in the material.

Made-in-Germany

5. Hand Finishing of the Crown

When the crown is milled, our in-house dental technician then adds his artistic touches to make the crown look realistic. After all, the crown needs to look like a real tooth to blend in with your other natural teeth!

Once we are satisfied with it, he then places the crown in the furnace that goes up to 1550°C for a pre-defined amount of time. This process strengthens the crown and also makes the stains on the crown permanent.

6. Crown Cementation

Once the crown have been decontaminated and conditioned, we will then proceed to place the crown onto  your tooth permanently using modern dental adhesives that optimises the bond strength and minimises sensitivity. This ensures that the crown stays on for as long as possible, while conserving your tooth structure for maximum preservation of  the strength of your tooth.

7. Review Check

We’ll see you in about a week later to make sure that everything went well. To be precise, we will check your bite, the stability of the crown and ensure that you are comfortable with it – just like your own tooth.

Get a personalised followup and access to our treatment portfolio!

5-year-warranty

Bridge/Ceramic Filling/Crown Warranty

Well established for more than 30 years, with >250 scientific studies confirming the clinical safety of tried and tested CEREC tooth restorations. Worldwide, more than 30 million tooth restorations have been produced with CEREC.

Here’s what our patients feel about us:

Had dental appointment with Dr. Philip and it was the best dental treatment ever. Dr. Philip had a very though check of the overall condition of my teeth and suggested cleaning and filling. The teeth cleaning procedure is painless and the filling was done with extra care. No hard sell. Will definitely come back for my half yearly check up!
Surong Mao
Surong M.
03:32 18 Jun 21
Been to many clinics and since I went here I never changed clinic and doctor. Doc Justin is the best! So patient and so skilled he really knows what he's doing. Their hyginiest Kelly is very good too, no pain everytime. Thumbs up services!
Maria Barcega
Maria B.
07:38 31 May 21
Been a patient from Dr Justin for about 5 years and we are super happy.Profesional, friendly and with an amazing team, it's the dentist clinic I recommend everyone who asks me.
Alfonso Castillo
Alfonso C.
04:26 27 May 21
(Translated by Google) Singapore dentist, Dental Designs five-star praise ⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ Highly recommended! !Because I had an inexplicable fear of seeing a doctor, especially a dentist since I was a child, I came here cautiouslyDental Designs Clinic-4 Robinson Rd,#03-01(Level 3) The House of Eden S(048543)💗💗💗💗💗Through the enthusiastic and patient introduction of three lovely young ladies at the front desk, I chose a good husband, dentist Dr Nicholas Ng. I heard that men’s hands will be gentler and full of expectations, hoping to show mercy. . 💉🙅👈👧👧👧👧👧It’s the first time I came to this dental clinic. After the doctor asked about my condition, he helped me to take an X-ray. Before I described my dental fillings in the last dental clinic two weeks ago, I was dissatisfied, so I was a bit dissatisfied. I was nervous about whether the dental cavity would be digging bigger and bigger this time. As a result, Dr Nicholas patiently explained to me the current situation of my teeth and the consequences that will happen in the future, so that I understand the root canal treatment, the teeth If the crown and root may become irritated in the future, the tooth must be extracted and replanted. The crown treatment has at least preserved my original tooth and gave me a section about teeth. .🦷🦷🦷🦷🦷After getting to know, I put down my precautions, handed over the teeth to Dr Nicholas, and made an appointment for the next treatment plan.👀👀👀👀👀Because my tooth roots are very thin, and there is another tooth root at the bottom of the tooth roots, it is very difficult to clean up. It also tests the professional skills of the dentist. It was only discovered in the second treatment that it was really a very hard doctor. Dr Nicholas has been meticulously helping me with disinfection, cleaning and dispensing. The whole process lasted more than an hour, but there was no pain at all. Even at the beginning of the anesthetic treatment, he was very careful to say sorry to me, it might be a little painful, but it was really a little bit. The pain can still be tolerated. The whole experience is very comfortable. Listening to beautiful music, there is a large TV above you can watch. There is no fear of the sound of electric drills like watching teeth. The environment here Super beautiful and elegant, located in the center of riffles, next to the subway station. When I first came, I took my camera and took pictures everywhere, because it is so elegant and comfortable, the sofa here feels like I don’t want to leave when I sit down, if I have a drink Coffee, a book, a computer should be able to sit for an afternoon without being bored 🌝🌝ᥬ😂᭄💖you💖you💖you💖you are pretty good👍👍👍Today is the third root canal treatment. It is faster than the previous two. It will be over after a while. I will be able to do dental crowns next week. I look forward to it. The dentist Dr Nicholas is really attentive and conscientious. After helping me with the root canal treatment, he helped me check other teeth 🦷🦷🦷 and asked me some suggestions and comments. A very serious and responsible dentist, highly recommended. . 🌝🌝 is pretty good👍👍👍💖youThan heart ❤️(Original)新加坡牙医,Dental Designs 五星好评⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ 强力推荐!!因为从小对看医生尤其是牙医有着一种莫名恐惧感,兢兢战战的来到Dental Designs Clinic- 4 Robinson Rd,#03-01(Level 3) The House of Eden S(048543)💗💗💗💗💗通过前台三位可爱的小姐姐热情而耐心的介绍下,我选择了一位好好先生,牙医 Dr Nicholas Ng,听说男士的手都会比较温柔,满怀期待,希望可以手下留情。。💉🙅👈👧👧👧👧👧因为是第一次来这家牙科诊所,医生询问我的病情后,先帮我拍了一个X光片,在我描述两个礼拜前我在上一家牙科诊所补牙令我不满意,所以我有点紧张这次会不会牙洞会越挖越大,结果,Dr Nicholas很有耐心的给我讲解了我的牙目前的情况,和未来会发生的后果,才让我明白了根管治疗,牙冠和以后有可能牙根发炎就必须拔牙再种牙,牙冠治疗,至少还保住了我原有的牙,给我上了一节有关牙齿方面的知识。。🦷🦷🦷🦷🦷在了解后,我才放下了防备,把牙齿交给了Dr Nicholas,并预约下一次的治疗方案。👀👀👀👀👀由于我的牙根非常细,而且在牙根底部又多出一条牙根还是打钩的,非常困难清理,也很考验牙医的专业技术,也是在第二次治疗中才发现,真的是非常辛苦医生了,Dr Nicholas 一直精心帮我消毒清洗放药,全程一个多小时,却一点疼痛感都没有,就连一开始打麻药也是很小心的跟我说对不起,可能会有一点疼,但其实真的就一点疼还是可以忍受的,全程的体验感非常舒适,听着优美的音乐,头顶上还有一台很大的电视可以观看,一点也不会有看牙的那种电钻响声的恐惧感,这里的环境超级美观大方,坐落于reffles市中心,地铁站旁边,我第一次来时,就拿着相机到处拍,因为实在是太优雅舒适了,这里的沙发坐下来就不想离开的感觉,如果有一杯咖啡一本书,一台电脑应该可以坐一下午也不会无聊的那种🌝🌝ᥬ😂᭄💖你💖你💖你💖你 整挺好👍👍👍今天是第三次的根管治疗,比前两次速度都快,没多一会就结束了,下个礼拜就可以做牙冠了,非常期待。Dr Nicholas牙医,真的非常细心认真,在帮我做完根管治疗后,又帮我检查了其他的牙齿🦷🦷🦷并且嘱咐我一些建议和意见,非常认真负责的牙医,大力推荐。。🌝🌝整挺好👍👍👍💖你比心❤️
Victoria Han
Victoria H.
17:44 18 May 21
It was an awesome experience. Originally, I was worried that my wisdom tooth extraction would be a painful and awful experience. I was pleasantly surprised that it was painless and I was so well taken care of throughout the procedure and during the recovery period. Thank you Dr Rares Ispas for his superb skill and for being so patient-oriented. Apart from taking care of my wisdom teeth issues, Dr Rares and team also carefully designed a good plan to ensure that my overall oral health is well-taken care of. Thank you Dr Rares and the team at Dental Designs. Keep up the good work!
C H
C H
08:35 12 May 21
What a dental experience 🤓For those who are afraid of going to the dentist, this is definitely the place for you!First comer experience - you first go through a series of photo taking session, followed by a quick X-ray session to determine the works needed on your set of teeth, which is immediately followed up and explained by the dentist.After which, you are passed on to a hygienist (Kelly in my case) for the follow up actions, mostly cleaning and scaling within the same day.Kelly will tell you before she commences on each step (whether it’s going to be uncomfortable or loud), sharing her recommendations on toothpaste, toothbrush and brushing techniques!Awesome experience, no anticipation, everything was well structured and panned out! Totally worth the 5 stars rating! 👍🏻(Not asked to make this review, this is on my own accord)
YY Wong
YY W.
08:59 06 Apr 21
Pleasant experience with Dr Chong Wei Ling. So painless and enjoyable that I almost dozed off 👍
Kai
Kai
06:37 10 Mar 21
Dr Justin and Ms. Kelly are amazing - they are very friendly, patient and skilled. Prior to any important steps, they would take some time to explain what would happen and would gently comfort you if needed. Also, not forgetting the receptionists, they are so cheerful, warm and friendly which makes the atmosphere feels like home!
Syron Ng
Syron N.
12:38 28 Feb 21
I had my wisdom tooth extraction here at Dental Designs - and for someone who hates the pain (and dental clinics in general) I did it flawlessly all thanks to Dr Rares who patiently made sure it was painless and quick. The process took less than 15 mins and was done seamlessly. For me, it’s going to be nowhere else but Dental Designs!
Raudah Yusoff
Raudah Y.
06:41 21 Jan 21
Dr Justin is really nice and professional.
Andrea Wong
Andrea W.
04:53 21 Dec 20
Root canal by Dr Nicholas - A big thanks to you for this 2 painless root canal session. Will ask us every now and then if we are ok during the session. Give proper advise and explaining the process he’s doing.Customer service/front desk officer is also polite and give proper advise when asked. And also most importantly give us a call reminder a day before so we wont forget amidst our busy schedule.My next session is with Dr Justin for crowning. See you guys soon.
Yazid
Yazid
06:49 16 Dec 20

1. What is a dental crown?

A dental crown is a tooth-shaped “cap” that is placed over a tooth — covering the tooth to restore its shape and size, strength, and/or to improve its appearance. It is normally made of a stronger material such as ceramic or metal. The crowns, when cemented into place, fully enclose the entire visible portion of a tooth that lies at and above the gum line.

2. Why do I need a crown?

The primary purpose of a crown is to cover or protect a damaged tooth. So, if you have had a root canal or a very big cavity, your dentist may suggest a dental crown to protect the remaining tooth structure. You may also need a crown as a part of a dental bridge or with dental implants.

3. What is involved in a dental crown procedure?

Dental crown procedures will vary depending on your individual case, however we will provide a general overview of what to expect. Before commencing any preparation work for your crown, the dentist will perform an initial examination of your tooth and overall mouth, which may include taking x-rays. If there is extensive decay found in the tooth, or a risk of infection is diagnosed, you may require other treatment first. Alternatively, if there is not enough natural tooth structure left to securely hold the crown in place, you may need a core, or a post-and-core to be placed first to create a foundation to support the overlying crown. Your dentist can discuss with you if you need any additional procedures.

The procedure for your crown will vary depending on whether your crown is going to be made at your dental surgery or in a dental laboratory:

  • Traditional Crown

The typical crown procedure done by most other dental clinics will involve at least 2 separate appointments which are normally spaced 2 weeks apart. There will be manual impressions to take the mould of the tooth. In the meantime, you will need to have a temporary crown on the prepared tooth to hold the space. This temporary crown is prone to dislodging or breaking, and is usually rough as it is temporary. If there are any issues with the crown during the second visit, you will need to have another visit a few days or weeks later to place the crown again.

  • CAD/CAM CEREC single-appointment ceramic crowns

At Dental Designs Clinic, as we have an in-house dental laboratory and we use the CAD/CAM (computer-aided design and manufacturing) CEREC system, the entire crown procedure will be completed in the same day or the day after.

Firstly the tooth and the area surrounding it will be numbed with local anaesthetic. Next any decay or failing old filling material is removed. The tooth is built up with a core to strengthen the internal structure. The tooth is then reduced down on all sides to create space for the crown to fit over the tooth.

A image is taken of the tooth inside your mouth with our digital scanner, and then a virtual design model of the crown is created, without needing to take impressions.

The data for the model is then electronically sent to our on-site milling unit, which uses a precise cutting tool to fabricate the restoration out of a block of porcelain material.

This can be completed in the same day to minimise any down time for you.

Once the crown is manufactured, it will be checked for fit and adjusted if necessary, before being permanently cemented onto your natural tooth.

This system eliminates the need for dental impressions, physical moulds, temporary restorations, and multiple dental visits. The modern technology is precise and accurate, and the restorations produced will match your natural tooth colour and blend in seamlessly.

4. What types of dental crowns are available?

Metal Containing Crowns

  • Metals used in crowns include gold alloy, other alloys (for example, palladium) or a base-metal alloy (for example, nickel or chromium). Typical metal crowns have lower gold content and more tooth needs to be cut away to fit the metal crown. Metal crowns with a high gold content need less tooth trimming and can withstand biting and chewing forces well. Also, metal crowns rarely chip or break and typically last the longest. The metallic color is the main drawback. Metal crowns can be a good choice for out-of-sight molars or if you are a heavy grinder. Cost is high in precious metal crowns due to the high gold content.
  • Porcelain-fused-to-metal dental crowns need the most amount of tooth to be trimmed away as they have 2 layers: a metal interior and a porcelain layer over the surface to have a more tooth like colour. However, a perfect match to natural teeth usually cannot be achieved as these crowns appear more opaque to cover the dark metal inside. As it is a thin layered porcelain, it is weak and the surface porcelain tends to chip or wear off over time, exposing the internal metal portion. The metal underlying the crown’s porcelain can also show through as an unsightly dark line, especially at the gum line and even more so if your gums recede. These crowns can be a used for front or back teeth and are typically cheaper. The gums surrounding the metal portion may also become more inflamed and bleed easily due to slight metal allergies.

Metal Free Crowns

    • All-ceramic or all-porcelain dental crowns are made from high strength ceramic, typically in a single homogenous layer. As they can be bonded permanently to the tooth, less tooth structure need to be trimmed to place the ceramic crowns. Ceramic crowns provide the best natural colour match than any other crown type and are hypoallergenic. They are technically difficult for the dentist to do and hence have a higher cost. All-ceramic crowns are a good choice for front teeth and back teeth.
    • Zirconia dental crowns are made out of zirconium oxide, which is a very strong white silicate material used in many medical prostheses such as for the hip or ear. They are extremely high strength and are come in 2 types – solid zirconia and high translucent zirconia. Solid zirconia has a more opaque white appearance and is good for back teeth which undergoes high stresses. High translucent zirconia can be used where a more natural tooth aesthetic is desired.

 

5. How long do dental crowns last?

On average, dental crowns last between 5 and 10 years. The life span of a crown depends on the amount of “wear and tear” the crown is exposed to, how well you follow good oral hygiene practices, and your personal mouth-related habits (you should avoid such habits as grinding or clenching your teeth, chewing ice, biting your fingernails and using your teeth to open objects such as beer caps, or packaging).

6. Does a crowned tooth require special care?

While a crowned tooth does not require any special care, remember that the underlying tooth is still your natural tooth and is still subject to decay or gum disease. Therefore, continue to follow good oral hygiene practices, including brushing your teeth at least twice a day and flossing once a day and make sure there is no food stuck between the teeth.

7. What Problems Could Develop With a Dental Crown?

    • Discomfort or sensitivity. you may experience some heat and cold sensitivity on your newly crowned tooth immediately after the procedure as the anaesthesia begins to wear off if the tooth that has been crowned still has a nerve in it. Your dentist may recommend that you brush teeth with toothpaste designed for sensitive teeth. This sensitivity is usually temporary and will go away in a few day. Persistent soreness or sensitivity that occurs when you bite down could mean that the crown is slightly too thick and is hitting the opposing tooth in some positions, and this needs to be highlighted to your dentist who can fix it.
    • Chipped crown. Crowns made of all porcelain or porcelain fused to metal can sometimes chip. If the chip is small, a composite resin can be used to repair the chip with the crown remaining in your mouth. This is usually just a temporary fix. If the chipping is extensive, the crown may need to be replaced.
    • Loose crown. Sometimes the cement washes out from under the crown. Not only does this allow the crown to become loose, it allows bacteria to leak in and cause decay to the tooth internally. If a crown feels loose, contact your dentist’s office.
    • Crown falls off. Sometimes crowns fall off. Reasons include decaying of the underlying tooth and loosening of the cementing material used to place the crown. If your crown comes off, clean the crown and the front of the tooth. You can replace the crown temporarily using dental adhesive or temporary tooth cement that is sold in stores for this purpose. Contact your dentist’s office immediately. He or she will give you specific instructions on how to care for the tooth and crown for the day or so until you can be seen for an evaluation. Your dentist may be able to re-cement the crown in place; if not, a new crown will need to be made.
    • Allergic reaction. Because the metals used to make crowns are usually a mixture of metals, an allergic reaction to the metals or porcelain used in crowns can occur, but this is extremely rare.
    • Dark line on crowned tooth next to the gum line. A dark line next to the gum line of your crowned tooth could be present if you have a porcelain-fused-to-metal crown. This dark line is simply the metal of the crown showing through. While not a problem in itself, the dark line may be cosmetically unacceptable and you can request to replace the crown with an all porcelain or ceramic one.

8. Is There a Difference Between the Crown and a Real Tooth?

The dental crown will never stain or change color unlike natural teeth. Crowns containing metal usually appear different or unnaturally opaque compared to your other teeth. However, ceramic crowns can be made indistinguishable from your existing teeth.

9. What Are “Onlays”, “3/4 Crowns” or “Inlays” ?

Onlays and 3/4 crowns are variations on the technique of dental crowns. The difference between these crowns and the crowns discussed previously is their coverage of the underlying tooth. The “traditional” crown covers the entire tooth; onlays and 3/4 crowns cover the underlying tooth to a lesser extent.

Inlays are only possible when the cavity is less than 1/3 the size of the tooth and are an alternative to large fillings. They tend to have a better shape for cleaning and to prevent food getting stuck between the teeth, and last much longer than conventional fillings.

The advantage of onlays, “3/4 crowns” or inlays are that they involve much less removal of the tooth structure, while still protecting the weak areas of the tooth. Also, if the restoration fails in future, there is more tooth remaining which makes it more likely to survive rather than requiring an extraction.

10. What are the Alternatives to Dental Crown?

For tooth decay or fractures that are not as large, we recommend ceramic onlays and inlays as explained above.

However, if the tooth is badly damaged, we will need to place a dental crown.

The purpose of the crown is to protect the tooth by covering it, and it has to be made of strong enough materials to serve its purpose. Some people may think about using a normal filling material to directly place a large filling over the surface of the tooth. This may work in the short term, but as the normal filling material is not rigid enough to hold the tooth together, cracks will continue to progress and the filling will break. The tooth will still need to be prepared or drilled again to fit a dental crown, causing more issues.

Porcelain veneers or a combination of braces and teeth whitening for the front teeth can help you achieve a purely cosmetic treatment by changing the shape of the teeth.

A dental bridge or implant can replace missing tooth if you choose to extract the tooth rather than to do a crown.

References:

  1. The Evolution Of the Cerec System
    Werner Moörmann – https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0002817714652995
  1. Influence Of Different Convergence Angles and Tooth Preparation Heights on the Internal Adaptation Of Cerec Crowns
    Shu-Hui Mou-Tsongi Chai-Juo-Song Wang-Yuh-Yuan Shiau – https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0022391302727376
  1. Marginal Adaptation Of Cerec 3 Cad/cam Composite Crowns Using Two Different Finish Line Preparation Designs
    aber Akbar-Cynthia Petrie-Mary Walker-Karen Williams-J. Eick – https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1532-849X.2006.00095.x
  1. Cerec Cad/cam Chairside System
    G Sannino-F Germano-L Arcuri-E Bigelli-C Arcuri-A Barlattani – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4402686/
  1. An Up To 5-year Clinical Evaluation Of Posterior In-ceram Cad/cam Core Crowns
    Andreas Bindl-Werner Mörmann – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12375459
  1. Full-ceramic CAD/CIM anterior crowns and copings https://europepmc.org/article/med/11351494
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