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What Is A Dental Implant?

If a tooth is missing or damaged beyond repair, dental implant surgery is a great option to replace the missing tooth and avoid having a gap between the teeth.

A dental implant consists of two main parts:

  • The dental implant body itself that is placed below the gum during the dental implant surgery; it basically replaces the root of a natural tooth
  • The implant crown, which is the visible part that replaces the missing tooth

The main advantage of dental implants is that it is an individual unit that does not rely on the neighbouring natural teeth to support it.

What happens if I leave the gap between my teeth after an extraction?

Over many years, without tooth implant treatment, the following long term consequences usually occur:

missingtooth
  1. The neighbouring teeth can start to tip or drift inwards towards space. As this happens, food and bacteria get stuck between the teeth, causing dental issues.
  2. In most cases, the opposing tooth will also start to ‘grow’ down towards the gap. Eventually, it may end up loose or biting on the lower gum and may need to be extracted.
  3. The bone and gum around the missing tooth will be lost, and collapse down.

Missing Teeth Affects Quality of Life

With a missing tooth, even simple things like chewing will be affected. Studies show that many people avoid chewing on the missing tooth side and instead bite on the other side, which can cause more damage to the other teeth.

The missing tooth may not be seen during smiling, but may also be visible during speaking and laughing to other people.

Advantages of Having a Dental Implant

LIKE HAVING A NEW TOOTH BACK AGAIN

Like having your natural tooth back again, appearance and chewing ability is restored.

EAT, SPEAK AND LAUGH CONFIDENTLY

No more worry about your dental dentures falling out, or exposing gaps between your teeth.

NO NEED FOR OTHER TEETH SUPPORT

Implants are independent, unlike dental dentures or bridges which can fail due to issues with the supporting teeth.

PRESERVE FACIAL STRUCTURE

A dental implant transmits chewing forces to the jaw bone, maintaining bone density and preserving the strength of the jaw in the long term.

Same Day, Emergency appointments available

Experienced Dentists

Our dentists have gone through intensive implant training both abroad and locally to provide the most suitable treatment for you.

High Quality Implants

Not all implants are created equal. We only use implants with reputable long term studies and have a great track record.

Fully Digital Workflow

From the 3D Scanning of your teeth to the X-Rays and 3D Printing, our strict protocol maximises your treatment outcome.

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Using high technology equipment and software, we are now able to have a protocol that maximises the long term success of your dental implant.

Accurate Positioning

With the usage of an implant guide, we are able to place our implant accurately. This reduces the risk of nerve damage and poor implant stability.

Natural Aesthetics

Each crown is hand painted to create life-like aesthetics that match your teeth naturally

Access to our In-House Lab

Having a lab at our clinic means you get a tooth replacement with as little downtime as possible. Any extra customisation can be done quickly too.

DENTAL IMPLANT  X  DENTAL DESIGNS CLINIC

What Happens During the Implant Visit?

1. The Dental Implant Consultation

Welcome to our clinic! During your first appointment, we’ll do a detailed examination to take into consideration:

  • Your main concern;
  • Teeth Condition;
  • Periodontal (Gum) Condition;
  • Oral Hygiene;
  • Habits (e.g. smoking and grinding);
  • Dimensions of the missing space

Based on this information, our dentists will take photos of your teeth and discuss your suitability for a dental implant.

Our philosophy is for both our dentist and you to have a detailed understanding of the situation so that you can make the right decision for yourself.

2. 3D Intraoral Scanning +  3D X-Ray

Once we have decided on an implant, it is time to start planning!

We start by taking a virtual scan of your teeth. This would create a 3D model of your teeth which are much faster and more accurate than the usual dental mold.

This is followed by a 3D X-Ray scan of your jaw to assess your bone structure and identity the anatomical structures present. That way, we are able to be very precise with our procedure while minimising risks.

3. Integrating 3D Scan and 3D X-Ray

The virtual scan of your teeth and x-ray are then merged together to create one complete picture of your dental condition. We will also design your future teeth position. With that, we have all the information we need to plan for your implant.

4. Dental Implant Planning

With all that information, we can then plan the position of your implant and subsequently create a Surgical Implant Guide that will ensure that the implant is placed according to what was planned.

During the planning phase, we are looking at issues such as:

  1. Critical Anatomical Structures – Nerves, sinus cavities, arteries and other important structures should be avoided.
  2. Quality and Quantity of Bone – The implant should be surrounded by healthy, adequate bone.
  3. Quality and Quantity of Gum – The implant should have sufficient healthy gums that are resilient enough to withstand damage.
  4. Implant in relation to the future implant crown – The implant must be placed in a position that is easy to clean while looking aesthetic and natural.
Made-in-Germany
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4. Dental Implant Planning

With all that information, we can then plan the position of your implant and subsequently create a Surgical Implant Guide that will ensure that the implant is placed according to what was planned.

During the planning phase, we are looking at issues such as:

  1. Critical Anatomical Structures – Nerves, sinus cavities, arteries and other important structures should be avoided.
  2. Quality and Quantity of Bone – The implant should be surrounded by healthy, adequate bone.
  3. Quality and Quantity of Gum – The implant should have sufficient healthy gums that are resilient enough to withstand damage.
  4. Implant in relation to the future implant crown – The implant must be placed in a position that is easy to clean while looking aesthetic and natural.

5. Designing Surgical Implant Guide

We create an individually customised 3D Printed guide. This guide allows us to place our implant accurately according to what we have already planned.

6. The Implant Procedure

The day has finally come! Please do not fret as we would have sufficiently planned for your implant procedure. We assure that you will be receiving:

  1. Infection Control Protocol according to MOH guidelines
  2. Genuine Dental Implants from reputable brands with long-term excellent results
  3. Genuine adjunctive treatment materials such as bone graft and stitches
  4. Genuine medication pre- and post-operative
  5. Tooth replacement in the case of front teeth missing
  6. Enjoying yourself watching a TV program on our ceiling mounted TV!
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Fully Guided Keyhole Implant Surgery – A technique to minimise the size of the surgery site for less pain, less stitches and better healing. Most importantly, it increases the safety of the procedure.

“With proper planning and execution, dental implants can last a very long time”

– Dr Justin Giam

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7. Review Check

We are sure that you’ll be alright. However, just to make sure of it, we’ll be giving you a phone call the next day to check on you. We will then be seeing you 2 weeks later to check how the implant is doing and possibly to remove any stitches. 

Phew, you are almost done! Next, we will schedule an appointment for you in 2-3 months to check on the implant again before finally placing a crown on it!

What Happens Next After Implant Surgery?

  • Placing the Implant

    The implant is placed into the bone and may be covered up or a small post left exposed.

  • Bone integration for 3-6 Months

    It takes time for the implant to fuse with your bone, gaining strength to support chewing forces.

  • 3D Scanning and Placing the Implant Crown

    The implant crown to replace the missing tooth is made to look as natural as possible to match the other teeth.

  • Screw Retained Crown Whenever Possible

    Studies have shown that screw retained implants have a higher longevity and have reduced chance of infection. They are also easier to repair if needed.

Get a personalised followup and access to our treatment portfolio!

10-year-implant-warranty

Dental Implant Warranty

    • 10 year warranty applies if the entire procedure was done at our clinic, including the bone grafting, implant placement and crown.

Here’s what our patients feel about us:

Ms Kelly is probably the best Hygienist in Singapore. She is so gentle and professional. Enjoyed every second of my routine dental cleaning with her.Clinic is very clean and tidyHighly recommend everyone to visit Ms Kelly at Dental Designs!👍👍
Ong Ray
Ong R.
14:13 13 Oct 21
I have been seeing Dr Nicholas as my dentist for a number of years, he has been most patient and meticulous. The experience of having him as my dentist is painless, joyful and most important, professional.
Don Tan
Don T.
07:43 13 Oct 21
I hardly write a Google review. Went to Dental Designs Clinic after it appeared on my Google search with 200+ 5-star reviews. Initially thought they're paid reviews, but decided to give it a try.Really impressed by the pleasant experience throughout. After booking, I received a video on the directions to the clinic which save all the hassle on locating the clinic.The clinic is vibrant and clean. All the staffs are very warm and friendly. Dr Jo Ann did scaling and polishing for me. She's very professional, patient, friendly, gentle and kind. Her assistant is also very patient, nice and friendly.Thank you for the thoughts in making the journey to the dentist a pleasant one. Will definitely recommend this clinic to others. Keep up the good work, Dental Designs!Ps: this is not a paid review 😀
Sweet Yee Chin
Sweet Yee C.
09:17 12 Oct 21
It's by far the most professional dental care experience that I've had. Thanks Dr. Rares Ispas for the gentle, speedy and zero pain tooth extraction. 🙏😀
Paul Regin Ian Cobbol
Paul Regin Ian C.
06:27 12 Oct 21
Been seeing hygienist Ms Kelly for my routine dental cleaning since Dental Designs opened their first branch at Telok Ayer street.I must recommend to everyone who have dental phobia in dental cleaning, must try to see Ms Kelly for dental cleaning. She is so gentle and caring and very professional too 🥰🥰🥰Thank you somuch Ms Kelly!
Richelle Lim
Richelle L.
04:04 12 Oct 21
I am originally from London and have had lifelong dental issues which meant regular visits to a dental practice. When moving to Singapore, I was totally confused as to which practice to choose and after booking several consultations with multiple dentists, Dr.Justin at Dental Designs was the only person who made me feel comfortable and confident.He is extremely professional, gentle and most of all patient. He is very experienced and the practice hygiene standards are impeccable.I would highly recommend him and his time.
Ashni Shah
Ashni S.
01:17 12 Oct 21
I highly recommend Dr. Jo Ann as she was patience and gentle in handling dentistry treatments. She takes the time and great effort to explain clearly before starting the dental treatment and that has helped me gain confidence. I really enjoyed my routine check ups with her. Not forgetting the front desk lady that greeted me and assisted my administrative and I am impressed with her diligence and efficiency.Overall, I highly recommend Dental Designs and thankful as in my view, they portray prestigious.
Joe Han
Joe H.
08:26 11 Oct 21
Would like to recommend Dr. Hani for her tooth extractions as her skills was excellent! it was without complications or infections. Dr. Hani minimizes pain and takes full precautions against virus/bacteria. Her Teeth Cleaning is also good and she was gentle as well.Additionally, the front desk lady was cheerful and polite. She was dedicated in her work. The way she enunciate on my dental appointment and handles my next follow-up was splendid. She was knowledgeable in her work and portrait very good standard of public relations. She makes patient really welcome and left me with an good experience with Dental Designs. Overall I am very pleased with my visit. It was pivotal in my view when I first enter the clinic to determine if my visit will be good, and I felt welcoming, this determine that dental designs have trained their staff well as they portray the image of the clinic at the front line.
Kaleny Ismail
Kaleny I.
07:01 11 Oct 21
Thanks heaps to Dr Philip!I am suffering from severe jaw pain and Dr Philip made the cleaning process painless for me with great patience ! His advice on pain management is greatly appreciate! Thanks once again!
Leong Diana
Leong D.
02:53 09 Oct 21
My experience with Dr. Nicholas Ng at Dental Designs has been extremely positive. Have done extensive treatments with Dr. Ng from wisdom tooth extraction and surgery, a root canal and crown replacements. He is meticulous, careful, and answers all questions in detail, helping the patient be assured of the procedures and why they are needed. He takes care to walk you through his approach and treatment plan ahead of time to make sure you have clarity every step of the way. Additionally, he always makes an effort to ensure you are comfortable and that the treatment is painless. Would highly recommend him to anyone who is keen to know the ins-and-outs of their dental treatment, and looking for a pain-free experience.
Ketaki Cadambi
Ketaki C.
06:04 06 Oct 21
Done teeth implant in Dental Designs Clinic, very satisfied with Dr Justin's professional skill. Actually my teeth have very deep overbite issue so it's a difficult task, but Dr Justin resolved it well by put base screw deeper so got enough space for crown. And admin staffs of the clinic are very friendly and helpful. Strongly recommend.
Bin Liu
Bin L.
10:52 19 Sep 21
My 4th time visit here, still it’s very great professional treatment by Dr Hani. First time extract my tooth also done by Dr Hani, didn’t feel pain at all, she is friendly and the Best Dentist so far I met.She makes me feel good and comfort.The staffs were friendly as well. Highly recommend this place for dental service.
bsheela bala
bsheela B.
12:17 13 Sep 21
I booked an appointment with Dental Designs to check on my oral health and was very pleasantly surprised at such a wonderful experience and service which I received.From the get go, booking the appointment was easy, when I arrived I was greeted by the friendly staff and I was led to my consultation right on time.I was then introduced to Dr Rares Ispas, who was amazing - a very consultative approach inclusive of an explanation at every stage as to what Dr Ispas was going to do with my teeth. Dr Ispas also took the extra steps of taking photos with a professional DSLR camera to show me what was going on with my teeth, as well as a thorough x-ray to further examine.I felt that the entire consultative approach by Dr Ispas was great in a way whereby I was given a full 360 consultation, great advisory on next steps and what to do, great live updates as Dr Ispas worked on my gums and teeth, and throughout the process it was a very gentle and smooth procedure. The application of high-grade materials on my teeth and gums, protective gels and finishing touches all made it such a pleasant experience.Overall I left feeling extremely happy and that my oral health was 100% taken care of, with absolutely no worries and full of confidence knowing all’s properly serviced and done now.Will definitely highly recommend Dental Designs to anyone who’s looking for a best in-house experience, smooth process and top service with top material applications to your dental health.
Jon Loh
Jon L.
00:39 26 Aug 21
Superb service and highly recommended. Special mention to my doctor who attended me, dr. Rares, very professional, treat me so well, and never experienced any pain during the process 🤙🤙🤙 keep it up!!! Better look for him. Salute!!!
WILLIAM JAMES BOYCO
WILLIAM JAMES B.
12:06 17 Aug 21
It was a great experience! Dr Tiffany and Ms Kelly have changed my view about dental visits being painful and scary. They are both very professional, personable and took great care of my teeth. The scaling/polishing service was also a smooth and absolutely painless process.
Judy Lim
Judy L.
10:27 13 Aug 21
Would like to recommend Dr.Nicholas! He is really gentle and patient to explain the condition and answer the questions. He does every step carefully and perfectly. The front desk team is also kind and helpful. Every experience here is great for me!
Chang Yutien
Chang Y.
09:31 13 Aug 21
I had an overnight dental issue, and came across Dental Designs via Google search. Seeing the urgency, they kindly accommodated my last minute appt request.Dr. Phillip attended to me. Wow, this was the most conscientious and meticulous dental experience I’ve ever had. He and the team made sure I had a pain-free and comfortable experience while solving my issue perfectly.Highly recommend!
Nicholas Tan
Nicholas T.
07:57 12 Aug 21
Dr Rares is such Rare find!!! Like the gentleness which eases my anxiety. Also how perfect the front tooth fillings are done, and I can’t stop smiling into the mirror =)
Alicia Goh
Alicia G.
15:44 07 Aug 21
Went for my first Wisdom Teeth Surgery on 12 July. Before this, I had heard horror stories from my peers that they suffer from pain after the surgery, which makes me scare hahaha. But on that day, Dr Noah had made the whole session not as tension as I thought it would be like, he is funny and make the effort to prompt questions to you so that you can be more chillax. The pre and post procedure was explained super clearly also by Dr Noah so that you know what to expect and what to do or not to do. The whole procedure was not painful at all (THANKFULLY YAY). Just that you will feel a lot of pressure and the sounds from the drilling might make you scare a bit. But maybe can try to wear a noise cancellation sound ear buds if you think you cannot tahan the sounds. The next day after the surgery, I also did not feel any pain, just a bit sore at the surgery area that is about it. Medications and mouth rinse will be assigned to you as well. Now I am really looking forward to next wisdom teeth surgery for my right side with Dr Noah again. Cheers!
Angie Yip
Angie Y.
05:25 13 Jul 21
Dear Dr Tiffany and Dr Rares, thank you so much for being you. I can't thank you enough for your professionalism and for every experience i have been through with you thus far.Dr Tiffany, i'm glad with myself that i can finally sit down and put my gratitude towards you in written words. I remember telling you how you could effortlessly make me and probably every patient feel. Thank you for being so extremely professional and humble. You are so awesome at your work, it makes it so easy to trust you in total comfort right from the first session. As much as im guilty of procrastinating my straightening course this late, im at the same time convinced that everything happens for an unknown reason at the right timing of readiness. Thank you for being a good portion of the reason.Dr Rares, i want to let you know in written words of what i have yet told you in person. You live up to all i have previously thought and wrote about you. Thank you for being so professional,super gentle and extra caring to details. I believe alot of dental patients elsewhere when going through arduous processes like deep cleaning will be in either fear or discomfort, but what went through my mind a few times when you were doing deep cleaning for me were mostly how impressive you were at your work and that i owe you another thank you. You are also so respectful and polite to your assistant each time. I'm so proud to be your patient.Dr Rares and Dr Tiffany, sometimes i feel that the phrase in good hands has been widely misused all over. But to be used on you, i feel that it is inadequate at all. May you be blessed the same way everywhere else with the same standards you bless on people.Thank you Sherlene and Christine so much too for being so responsible, cheerful and responsive! 🥰Gin Goh
Kion Moy
Kion M.
08:56 30 Jun 21
Had dental appointment with Dr. Philip and it was the best dental treatment ever. Dr. Philip had a very though check of the overall condition of my teeth and suggested cleaning and filling. The teeth cleaning procedure is painless and the filling was done with extra care. No hard sell. Will definitely come back for my half yearly check up!
Surong Mao
Surong M.
03:32 18 Jun 21
cosy clinic and great environment. dr chong is very gentle and detailed. never had my gums bleed doing scaling and polishing while all my previous visits to various dentists had me bleeding the past 20 years. definitely recommended.
Carine Ching
Carine C.
10:26 05 Jun 21
Been to many clinics and since I went here I never changed clinic and doctor. Doc Justin is the best! So patient and so skilled he really knows what he's doing. Their hyginiest Kelly is very good too, no pain everytime. Thumbs up services!
Maria Barcega
Maria B.
07:38 31 May 21
Visited Dr Rares for my pain tooth and I really lucky that I’ve met him and now my toothache has gone after rood kanal ? (sorry if i spell it wrong!) treatment with him. He is very experienced and caring, keep asking me if I were doing fine during the treatment, making me feel extra safe. Will stick to him in the future! The receptionist at Dental designs are all very friendly and caring as well, unlike other dental clinic which were kinda rude to me when i was just trying to find out their treatment charges etc... 🤷‍♀️Anyway, thank you Dr Rares and thank you Dental Designs!!100% will recommend to my friends to visit Dental Designs👍👍
Aaron CH
Aaron C.
06:39 11 May 21
Pleasant experience with Dr Chong Wei Ling. So painless and enjoyable that I almost dozed off 👍
Kai
Kai
06:37 10 Mar 21
I had my wisdom tooth extraction here at Dental Designs - and for someone who hates the pain (and dental clinics in general) I did it flawlessly all thanks to Dr Rares who patiently made sure it was painless and quick. The process took less than 15 mins and was done seamlessly. For me, it’s going to be nowhere else but Dental Designs!
Raudah Yusoff
Raudah Y.
06:41 21 Jan 21
I'd just visited the clinic 2nd time today, first for scaling and this time for wisdom tooth extraction. All 4 in one go. I highly reccomend this clinic as the doctors and specialist are at their best as professionals and they take good care of you. My specialist Dr Noah knows his job very well and executed minor surgery as I was required to do for my 2 wisdom teeth, without pain and a smooth one at that. Dr Joann then took over for general extraction also with ease. I am very pleased and I was well taken care off.
OSE
OSE
13:28 04 Jan 21
  1. 1. What are dental implants?

    A dental implant by itself is not a tooth! A dental implant is a prosthesis used to replace missing teeth. Essentially, it is a small titanium post/fixture that is inserted into the jawbone, on top of which a single crown (for a single crown) or a fixed bridge, a partial denture, or full denture (for multiple teeth replacement with more than one implant) can be attached.

    Once the implant integrates to your bone, a structure called an abutment is connected to the implant, to which the artificial tooth/teeth are attached. Therefore, there are 3 parts to an “implant tooth”: the dental implant itself, the abutment connector, and the artificial tooth/teeth.

    2. Who is suitable for dental implants?

    Basically, if you are healthy enough to have a tooth taken out, you are probably healthy enough to have a dental implant placed. Patients are usually concerned about being too old for the procedure. There is no maximum age limit to who can receive a dental implant as the implant will still work regardless of age. However, there is a minimum age limit. Patients who are still growing (Eg. Children or teenagers) will usually need to delay the dental implant procedure until growth is complete.

    3. Who is not suitable for dental implants?

    Patients with the following conditions must be carefully evaluated:

    Uncontrolled diabetes

    Steroid therapy

    Connective tissue disorders

    Bone disorders

    If you have these conditions, implants may still be possible, albeit with a higher chance of complications. Please consult your dentist for more information.

    4. Is Dental Implant Surgery Painful?

    Most people find dental implant surgery very easy to tolerate, and in fact most people report that it is less painful than the tooth extraction. Any post-operative discomfort can usually be managed with over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medication. Ice can also be helpful.

    5. What are the chances of success for a dental implant procedure?

    Dental implants have an approximate success rate of 98%. However, keep in mind that taking care of your implant is necessary to ensure that the implant lasts a long time. Success can also depend on where the implant is installed in the jaw, as well as how the patient maintains overall oral hygiene.

    6. What sets apart a dental implant from other tooth replacement options?

    No other tooth replacement provides stimulation to the supporting jawbone. Usually, that stimulation comes from the tooth’s root. The implant screw replaces that tooth root, stimulating the supporting bone and preventing long-term deterioration of the supporting bone structure. Also, because an implant is permanently attached to the jawbone, it will not slip or shift such as with other tooth replacement options, such as dentures.

    7. If I undergo dental implant surgery, what is the healing process like?

    The healing process differs for each patient, as no two implant procedures are identical. Some patients require a bone graft prior to implant placement, while others opt for a same-day implant treatment. Most patients can expect some soreness for the first few days after the dental implant surgery, which typically goes away within 1-2 weeks. There is a three to six month waiting period, during which time the metal implant fuses with the jawbone. Once integration is complete, a dental crown can be placed and the implant can be used for chewing.

    8. How long does a dental implant last?

    Dental implants can last a patient a lifetime if they’re well taken care of. Implants do not decay. Dental Implants are supported by the surrounding bone and gums which are still susceptible to bacteria. Implants should be cared for similar to a natural tooth. This includes good home dental care, regular dental exams and professional cleaning.

    9. How long does it take to get dental implants?

    Dental implants require multiple office visits as there is a planning process as well as a waiting period in between each stage. It takes time for the implant to fuse to the bone before the final crown can be placed. Between the start of the procedure and completion, it can take a few months.

    10. Are Dental Implants expensive?

    At the outset, implants are more expensive than other tooth-replacement methods such as dentures or bridgework. But they also last many years longer and in fact should never need replacement unlike dentures. So they are a viable option when viewed as a long-term investment in your health,  quality of life, comfort and well-being.

    11. Dental Implant Cost in Singapore

    Tooth implant Singapore vary in cost around $2000 to $8000 or more per tooth. The price of a dental tooth implant may vary depending on a variety of factors, such as the services or treatments that come with getting a dental implant. Certain services like bone augmentation, soft tissue treatment, extraction, and crowning will all affect the overall price of getting a dental implant. If you have Medisave, we can assist you to claim a portion of the cost from Medisave.

References

  1. Effect Of Implant Design on Survival and Success Rates Of Titanium Oral Implants: a 10‐year Prospective Cohort Study Of the Iti® Dental Implant System Ioannis
    Karoussis – Urs Brägger-Giovanni Salvi-Walter Bürgin-Niklaus Lang – https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1600-0501.2004.00983.x
  2. Influence Of Diameter and Length Of Implant on Early Dental Implant Failure
    Sergio Olate-Mariana Lyrio-Márcio Moraes-Renato Mazzonetto-Roger Moreira – https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278239109019326
  3. Integrating Three-dimensional Digital Technologies For Comprehensive Implant Dentistry
    Neal Patel – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20516111
  4. Cad / Cam Dental Systems in Implant Dentistry:
    Update M Fuster-Torres-Salvador Albalat-Estela-Mariano Alcañiz-Raya-María Peñarrocha-Diago – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19242395
  5. Long-term Survival and Success Of Oral Implants in the Treatment Of Full and Partial Arches: a 7-year Prospective Study with the Iti Dental Implant System
    Eugenio Romeo-Diego Lops-Emilio Margutti-Marco Ghisolfi-Matteo Chiapasco-Giorgio Vogel – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15101597
  6. Risk Factors For Dental Implant Failure: A Strategy For the Analysis Of Clustered Failure-time Observations
    S.k. Chuang, L.j. Wei, C.w. Douglass, T.b. Dodson, 2002 S.K. Chuang-L.J. Wei-C.W. Douglass-T.B. Dodson – https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/154405910208100814
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